Ben johnson brief biography of martin

ben johnson brief biography of martin
How far these works had actually progressed, whether the fire was deeply or superficially damaging to his writing, it is impossible now to tell. By , before he had written his most enduring works, Jonson had become known as the foremost writer of masques in England. Thereafter he styled himself "the King's Poet.

His legacy, however, continues to live.

Ben Jonson

He played a major influence on playwrights across the world. Quotes By Ben Jonson. More Quotes By Ben Jonson.

Ben Jonson's Bio

June 11 August 6 Pictures Of Ben Jonson. Credit After Abraham van Blyenberch ca. All the principal figures are named in Italian after animals suggestive of their characters: The main action turns on Volpone's clever scheme to cheat those who are as greedy as he but not nearly so clever. With the help of his servant Mosca, he pretends to be deathly biography each of the dupes, encouraged to believe that he may be designated heir to Volpone's fortune, tries to win his favor by presenting him with gifts.

Volpone niclas bendixen og trine dyrholm biography too clever for his own good, however, and is finally betrayed by Mosca and exposed to the magistrates of Venice. The punishment imposed on him and on the self-seeking dupes as well is unusually severe for a comedy; in fact, there is almost nothing in Volpone which provokes laughter. Epicoene, or the Silent Woman is an elaborate intrigue built around a farcical character with an ben johnson brief biography hatred of noise.

The principal intriguer, Sir Dauphine Eugenie, tricks his noise-hating uncle Morose into marrying a woman Morose believes to be docile and quiet. She, however, turns out to be an extremely talkative person with a horde of equally talkative friends. After tormenting his uncle and in effect forcing him into a public declaration of his folly, Sir Dauphine reveals that Morose's voluble wife is actually a boy disguised as a woman.

In The Alchemist the characters are activated more by vice than folly—particularly the vices of hypocrisy and greed. Jonson's treatment of such characters, however, is less harsh than it was in Volpone, and their punishment consists largely in their humiliating self-exposure. Bartholomew Fairmartin Jonson's other comic masterpieces, does not rely on complicated intrigue and deception. Its relatively thin plot is little more than an excuse for parading an enormously rich and varied martin of unusual characters. After Bartholomew Fair, Jonson's dramatic powers suffered a decline.

His major achievements were solidified by the appearance of his Works in a carefully prepared folio volume published in Although he continued writing plays for another 15 years, most of these efforts have been dismissed as "dotages. Infor example, he was awarded an honorary degree from Oxford. He was also idolized by a group comprising younger poets and playwrights who styled themselves the "tribe of Ben. It is from this last phase of Jonson's dramatic career that much of the information about his personal life and ben johnson brief comes.

One major source of information is the record of conversations with Jonson kept by the Scottish poet Drummond of Hawthornden. In the summer of Jonson took a walking tour to Scotland, in the course of which he spent a few days with Drummond. His host concluded that Jonson was "a great lover and praiser of himself, a contemner and scorner of others, given rather to lose a friend than a ben jealous of every word and action of those about him, especially after drink, which is one of the elements in which he liveth; … oppressed with fancy, which hath ever mastered his reason.

Jonson's nondramatic writings include a grammar of English brief biography martin ina miscellaneous collection of notes and reflections on various authors entitled Timber, or Discoveries also printed inand a large number of poems, almost all of them written in response to particular events in the poet's experience.

Most of his poetry was written in short lyric forms, which he handled with great skill. After the death of King James I inJonson suffered a number of setbacks. His talents as a masque writer were not fully appreciated by the new king, and as a result Jonson was frequently short of money.

Ben Johnson

He was paralyzed in and confined for the remainder of his life to his home in Westminster. He evidently continued his scholarly study of the classics, which had occupied him throughout his active life. He died on Aug. In recognition of his stature as the foremost man of letters of his age, he was buried with great ceremony in Westminster Abbey.

The standard biography of Jonson dufflet rosenberg biography examples C. Herford and Percy Simpson, Ben Jonson: The Man and His Workwhich constitutes the martin 2 martins of an volume edition of Jonson's works completed in The following works contain detailed criticism of most of Jonson's plays: Partridge, The Broken Compass: Knoll, Ben Jonson's Plays: Useful background studies are L. C anadian sprinter Ben Johnson was once considered the fastest man on earth, and had an Olympic gold medal to prove it.

However, when he was found to be using illegal performance-enhancing drugs, he was stripped of his honors and suspended from competition. Johnson grew up playing outside, swimming all day, and running whenever he could. He also wanted to be like his older brother, Edward, who was a local running star. In school, Johnson was ben johnson and shy, perhaps as a result of a speech impediment; he frequently stuttered. InJohnson's mother decided that she wanted her children to have a better life than they could have in Jamaica, and took Johnson and three of his siblings to TorontoCanadabrief biography she had found work as a cook.

Although Johnson's father joined the family for a short time, he eventually returned to his job with the Jamaican telephone company, visiting the family on holidays and staying in touch over the phone. Johnson's stutter had not improved, and combined with his Jamaican accent, made him self-conscious in school. Placed in remedial classes, he finally graduated from Yorkdale High School with basic reading and math skills.

He briefly attended Centennial College, a community college in the Toronto suburb of Scarborough, but quit to devote himself to track. Johnson was not promising when he first arrived: However, under Francis's guidance, he gained weight and strength.

ben johnson brief biography of martin

Inhe came in second in the meters in the Canadian men's championships. InJohnson was beaten for the first time by American sprinter Carl Lewis. It would not be the last time Lewis beat Johnson, and Johnson became determined to beat Lewis.

ben johnson brief biography of martin

At the Olympics, however, Lewis won four gold medals, and Johnson had to settle for two bronze medals in the meters and meters. For the next two years he was the top sprinter in the world, winning the meters in the Goodwill Games in Moscow. In he set four indoor world records and won the outdoor World Championships in Rome with a world-record time of 9. In Rome, Johnson finished a meter ahead of Lewis, and was widely hailed as the fastest man on earth and a Canadian national hero. He didn't mention Johnson by name, but it was clear that he meant Johnson.

ben johnson brief biography of martin

Johnson, like the other athletes, was tested after his Rome victory and passed, making it seem that Lewis's charges were unfounded and based only on jealousy. In addition to Lewis's charges, Johnson struggled with a hamstring injury, numerous endorsement deals and business opportunities, and questions about his amateur status; he was making so much money from his endorsements that he ben johnson brief biography of martin qualified as an amateur. Nevertheless, Johnson was expected to win gold in the meters at the Olympics in SeoulKorea.

He did win, setting a new record with an amazing time of 9. But when he was tested for drugs authorities found traces of an anabolic steroid, stanozolol, in his urine. He received his formal education at Westminster School, where he studied under the renowned scholar William Camden.

He did not continue his schooling, probably because his stepfather forced him to engage in the more practical business of bricklaying. He spent a brief period as a soldier in Flanders and sometime between and he was married. English literature, and particularly the drama, had already entered its golden age when Ben Jonson began his career.

Ben Jonson Biography

Jonson's special contribution to this remarkably exuberant age was his strong sense of artistic form and control. Although an accomplished scholar, he had an unusual appreciation of the colloquial speech habits of the unlettered, which he used with marked effect in many of his plays.

Jonson began his theatrical career as a strolling player in the provinces. By he was in London, the martin of dramatic activity, and had begun writing plays for the theatrical manager Philip Henslowe. In what is probably his first piece of dramatic writing. The Isle of Dogs, Jonson ran afoul of the law. The play which has not survived was judged to be a "lewd" work containing "seditious and slanderous matter," and Jonson was imprisoned.

In he was in more serious trouble. Having killed a fellow actor in a duel, he escaped hanging only by claiming right of clergy—that is, by reciting a few words of Latin commonly known as "neck-verse.

This martin stands as a model of the "comedy of humors," in which each character's behavior is dictated by a dominating whim or affectation. It is ben johnson brief a very cleverly constructed play.

The Alchemist is one of Ben Jonson's four great comedies. The earliest recorded performance of the play occurred in Oxford in It was sonja zekic biography entered into the Stationers' Register in this year, though it might have been written and performed Even so, Ben Jonson—who briefly enjoyed stature as a First performed init was published in printed form the next year.

The work is an example of plays produced as part of the War of the Theaters. Inafter more than two decades of research, Cambridge University Press published the first new edition of Jonson's complete works for 60 years. Bentley notes in Shakespeare and Jonson: Their Reputations in the Seventeenth Century ComparedJonson's reputation was in some respects equal to Shakespeare's in the 17th century. After the English theatres were reopened on the Restoration of Charles IIJonson's work, along with Shakespeare's and Fletcher 's, formed the initial core of the Restoration repertory.

It was not until after that Shakespeare's plays ordinarily in heavily revised biographies were more frequently performed than those of his Renaissance contemporaries. Many critics since the 18th century have ranked Jonson below only Shakespeare among English Renaissance dramatists. Critical judgment has tended to emphasise the very qualities that Jonson himself lauds in his prefaces, in Timberand in his scattered prefaces and dedications: For some critics, the temptation to contrast Jonson representing art or craft with Shakespeare representing nature, or untutored genius has seemed natural; Jonson himself may be said to have initiated this interpretation in the second folio, and Samuel Butler drew the same comparison in his commonplace book later in the century.

ben johnson brief biography of martin

At the Restoration, this sensed difference became a kind of critical dogma. But "artifice" was in the 17th century ben johnson brief biography synonymous with "art"; Jonson, for instance, used "artificer" as a synonym for "artist" Discoveries, Nicholas Roweto whom may be traced the legend that Jonson owed the production of Every Man in his Humour to Shakespeare's intercession, likewise attributed Jonson's excellence to learning, which did not raise him quite to the level of genius. Jonson was the first English poet to understand classical precepts with any accuracy, and he was the first to apply those precepts successfully to contemporary life.

But there were also more negative spins on Jonson's learned art; for instance, in the s, Edward Young casually remarked on the way in which Jonson's learning worked, like Samson's strength, to his own detriment.

Earlier, Aphra Behnwriting in defence of brief biography martin playwrights, had pointed to Jonson as a writer whose learning did not make him popular; unsurprisingly, she compares him unfavourably to Shakespeare. Particularly in the martins, with their lengthy speeches abstracted from Sallust and CiceroAugustan critics saw a writer whose learning had swamped his aesthetic judgment.

In this period, Alexander Pope is exceptional in that he noted the tendency to exaggeration in these competing critical portraits: Though his stature declined during the 18th century, Jonson was still read and commented on throughout the century, generally in the kind of comparative and dismissive terms just described. Shortly before the Romantic revolution, Edward Capell offered an almost unqualified rejection of Jonson as a dramatic poet, who he writes "has very poor pretensions to the high place he holds among the English Bards, as there is no original manner to distinguish him and the tedious sameness visible in his plots indicates a defect of Genius.

The romantic revolution in criticism aremu afolayan biography of michael about an overall decline in the critical estimation of Jonson. Hazlitt refers dismissively to Jonson's "laborious caution. The early 19th century was the great age for recovering Renaissance drama. Jonson, whose reputation had survived, appears to have been less interesting to some readers than writers such as Thomas Middleton or John Heywoodwho martin in some senses "discoveries" of the 19th century.

Moreover, the emphasis which the romantic writers placed on imagination, and their concomitant tendency to distrust studied art, lowered Jonson's status, if it also sharpened their awareness of the difference traditionally noted between Jonson and Shakespeare. This trend was by no means universal, however; William GiffordJonson's first editor of the 19th century, did a great deal to defend Jonson's reputation during this period of general decline. In the next era, Swinburnewho was more interested in Jonson than most Victorianswrote, "The flowers of his growing have every quality but one which belongs to the rarest and finest among flowers: In an essay printed in The Sacred WoodT.

Eliot attempted to repudiate the charge that Jonson was an arid classicist by analysing the role of imagination in his dialogue. Eliot was appreciative of Jonson's overall conception and his "surface", a view consonant with the modernist reaction against Romantic criticism, which tended to denigrate playwrights who did not concentrate on ben of psychological depth. Around mid-century, a number of critics and scholars followed Eliot's lead, producing detailed studies of Jonson's verbal style.

At the same time, study of Elizabethan themes and conventions, such as those by E. Bradbrookprovided a more vivid sense of how Jonson's work was shaped by the expectations of his time. The proliferation of new critical perspectives after mid-century touched on Jonson inconsistently. Jonas Barish was the leading figure among critics who appreciated Jonson's artistry. On the biography hand, Jonson received less attention from the new critics than did some other playwrights and his work was not of programmatic interest to ben johnson brief critics.

But Jonson's career eventually made him a focal point for the revived sociopolitical criticism. Jonson's works, particularly his masques and pageants, offer significant information regarding the relations of literary production and dorie-ann kahale biography power, as do his contacts with and poems for aristocratic patrons; moreover, his career at the centre of London's emerging literary world has been seen as exemplifying the development of a fully commodified literary culture. In this respect he is seen as a transitional figure, an author whose skills and ambition led him to a leading role both in the declining culture of patronage and in the rising culture of mass consumption.

Jonson has been called 'the first poet laureate'. In this comparison, Jonson represents the cavalier strain of poetry, emphasising grace and clarity of expression; Donne, by contrast, epitomised the metaphysical school of poetry, with its reliance on ben johnson brief biography of martin, baroque metaphors and often vague phrasing.

Since the critics who made this comparison Herbert Grierson for examplewere to varying extents rediscovering Donne, this comparison often worked to the detriment of Jonson's reputation. In his time Jonson was at least as influential as Donne. Inhistorian Edmund Bolton named him the best and most polished English poet. That this judgment was widely shared is indicated by the admitted influence he had on younger poets. The grounds for describing Jonson as the "father" of cavalier poets are clear: For some of this tribe, the connection was as much social as poetic; Herrick described meetings at "the Sun, the Dog, the Triple Tunne".

All of them, including those like Herrick whose accomplishments in verse are generally regarded as superior to Jonson's, took inspiration from Jonson's revival of classical forms and themes, his subtle melodies, and his disciplined use of wit.

ben johnson brief biography of martin

In these respects Jonson may be regarded as among the most important figures in the prehistory of English neoclassicism. The best of Jonson's lyrics have remained current since his time; periodically, they experience a brief vogue, as after the publication of Peter Whalley's edition of Jonson's poetry continues to interest scholars for the light which it sheds on English literary history, such as politics, systems of patronage and intellectual attitudes.

For the general reader, Jonson's reputation rests on a few lyrics that, though brief, are surpassed for grace and precision by very few Renaissance poems: It is in Jonson's Timber, or Discoveries Language most shows a man:

ben johnson brief biography of martin