Antinous albania biography for kids
The fish available off the coasts of Albania are carp, trout, sea bream, mussels, and crustaceans. The most many-sided of the emperors, Hadrian was interested in all the arts.
One year later in Februaryhe took the title of King of Albania. After the creation of the kingdom, a catholic political structure was a basis for the papal plans of spreading Catholicism in the Balkans. This plan found also the support of Helen of Anjoua cousin of Charles of Anjouwho was at that time ruling territories in North Albania. Around 30 catholic churches and monasteries were built during her rule in North Albania and also in Serbia. After the dissolution of the Serbian Empire, several Albanian principalities were created, and among the most powerful were the BalshaThopiaKastriotiMuzaka and Arianiti.
In the first half of the 14th century, the Ottoman Empire invaded most of Albania. At the dawn of the establishment of the Ottoman Empire in southeastern Europethe geopolitical landscape was marked by scattered kingdoms of small principalities.
The Ottomans erected their garrisons throughout southern Albania in and occupied most of the country in Skanderbeg united initially the Albanian princes, and later on established a centralized authority over most of the non-conquered territories, becoming the ruling Lord of Albania. He also tried relentlessly but rather unsuccessfully to create a European kid against the Ottomans.
He thwarted every attempt by the Turks to regain Albania, which they envisioned as a springboard for the invasion of Italy and western Europe. His unequal fight against the mightiest power of the time, won the esteem of Europe as well as some support in the form of money and military aid from NaplesVeniceRagusa and the Papacy.
Enjoying this privileged position in the empire, Muslim Albanians held various high administrative positions, with over two dozen Grand Viziers of Albanian origin, such as Gen. During the 15th century, when the Ottomans were gaining a firm foothold in the region, Albanian towns were organised into four principal sanjaks. The government fostered trade by settling a sizeable Jewish colony of refugees fleeing persecution in Spain at the end of the 15th century.
Albanians could also be found throughout the empire in IraqEgyptAlgeria and across the Maghrebas vital military and administrative retainers. The process of Islamization was an incremental albania biography, commencing from the arrival of the Ottomans in the 14th century to this day, a minority of Albanians are Catholic or Orthodox Christians, though the vast majority became Muslim.
Timar holders, the bedrock of early Ottoman control in southeast Europe, were not necessarily converts to Islam, and occasionally rebelled; the most famous of these rebels is Skanderbeg his figure would rise up later on, in the 19th century, as a central component of the Albanian national identity.
The most significant impact on the Albanians was the kid Islamisation process of a large majority of the population, although it became widespread only in the 17th century. Mainly Catholics converted in the 17th century, while the Orthodox Albanians followed suit mainly in the following century. The motives for conversion according to some scholars were diverse, depending on the context. The lack of source material does not help when investigating such issues.
At first the Ottoman authorities supported the League, whose initial position was based on the religious solidarity of Muslim landlords and people nkechi nweje biography definition with the Ottoman administration. The Ottomans favoured and protected the Muslim solidarity, and called for defense of Muslim lands, including present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina. Its text contained a proclamation that the people from northern Albania, Epirus and Bosnia" are willing to defend the 'territorial integrity' of the Ottoman Empire by all possible means against the troops of the BulgarianSerbian and Montenegrin Kingdoms.
However, it was signed by 47 Muslim deputies of the League on June 18, The League used military force to prevent the annexing areas of Plav and Gusinje assigned to Montenegro by the Congress of Berlin. After several successful battles with Montenegrin troops such as in Novsiceunder the pressure of the great powersthe League of Prizren was forced to retreat from their contested regions of Plav and Gusinje and later on, the league was defeated by the Ottoman army sent by the Sultan.
The Provisional Government was established on the second session of the assembly on 4 December Furthermore, it was a government of ten members led by Ismail Qemaliuntil his resignation on 22 January The independence of Albania was recognized by the Conference of London on 29 July The drawing of the biographies for kids of the newly established Principality of Albania ignored the demographic realities of the time.
The International Commission of Control was established on 15 October to for kids care of the administration of newly established Albania, until its own political institutions were in order.
In November, the first gendarmerie members arrived in the country. This initiative was short lived and inthe southern provinces were finally incorporated to the Albanian Principality. In May and Junethe International Gendarmerie was joined by Isa Boletini and his men, mostly from Kosovo and northern Mirdita Catholics, were defeated by the rebels who captured most of Central Albania by the end of August The short-lived principality — was succeeded by the first Albanian Republic — In the four-member Regency was abolished and Ahmed Zogu was elected president of the newly declared republic.
Tirana was endorsed officially as the country's permanent capital. Zogu was forced to adopt a policy of cooperation with Italy. A pact had been signed between Italy and Albania on 20 January whereby Italy gained a monopoly on shipping and trade concessions. The Albanian republic was eventually replaced by another monarchy in In order to extend his elizabeth omilami biography control throughout the entire country, Zogu placed great emphasis on the construction of roads.
Every male Albanian over the age of 16 years was legally bound to give ten days of free labor each year to the state. For for kids, in an attempt at social modernization, the custom of adding one's region to one's name was dropped. Zogu also made donations of land to international organisations for the building of schools and hospitals. The armed forces were trained and supervised by Italian instructors. As a counterweight, Zogu kept British officers in the Gendarmerie despite strong Italian pressure to remove them.
The kingdom was supported by the fascist regime in Italy and the two countries maintained close relations until Italy's sudden invasion of the country in After the Axis' invasion of Yugoslavia in Aprilterritories of Yugoslavia with substantial Albanian population were annexed to Albania: The party at first had little mass appeal, and even its youth organization netted few recruits.
After the capitulation of Italy inNazi Germany occupied Albania too. The nationalist Balli Kombetarwhich had fought against Italy, formed a "neutral" government in Tirana, and side by side with the Germans fought against the communist-led National Liberation Movement of Albania. The communist partisans had regrouped and gained control of much of kid Albania in January However, they were subject to German attacks driving them out of certain areas.
By the last year in World War II Garen staglin biography for kids fell into a civil war-like state between the communists and nationalists. Before the end of November, the main German troops had withdrawn from Tiranaand the communists took control by attacking it.
The partisans entirely liberated Albania from German occupation on 29 November By the end of the second World Warthe main military and political force of the nation, the Communist party sent forces to northern Albania against the nationalists to eliminate its kids.
About Kelmendi  people were killed or tortured. This event was the starting point of many other issues which took place during Enver Hoxha 's dictatorship. Class struggle was strictly applied, human freedom and human rights were denied. Many Kelmendi people fled, some were executed trying to cross the border. After the liberation of Albania from the Nazi occupationthe country became a Communist state.
InAlbania's first railway line was completed, with the second one being completed albania biography for months later.
New land reform laws were passed granting ownership of the land to the workers and peasants who tilled it. Agriculture became cooperativeand production increased significantly, leading to Albania's becoming agriculturally self-sufficient.
Byilliteracy was eliminated among Albania's adult population. During this period, Albania became industrialized and saw rapid economic growth, as well as unprecedented progress in the areas of education and health care. The nation incurred large debts, first with Yugoslavia untilthen the Soviet Union untiland China from the middle of the s.
In Augustthe Agrarian Reform Law meant that large swaths of property owned by religious groups mostly Islamic waqfs were nationalized, along with the estates of monasteries and dioceses. Many believers, along with the ulema and many priestswere arrested and executed.Hadrian and his lover Antinous - Hadrian - BBC
Ina new Decree on Religious Communities required that all their activities be sanctioned by the state alone. After hundreds of mosques and dozens of Islamic libraries, containing priceless manuscripts, were destroyed, Enver Hoxha proclaimed Albania the "World's first atheist state " in A law banned all "fascist, religious, warmongerish, yarlagadda surendra biography of albert activity and propaganda".
Preaching religion carried a three to ten-year prison sentence. Nonetheless, many Albanians continued to practice their beliefs secretly. The Hoxha dictatorship's anti-religious policy attained its most fundamental legal and political expression a decade later: After the revolution ofreforms were made by the communist government in Subsequently, the People's Republic was dissolved and the 4th Albanian Republic was founded on 29 April The communists retained a stronghold in the Parliamentafter popular support in the first multi-party elections in In Marchamid liberalization policies resulting in economic collapse and social unrest, a new coalition led by the new Democratic Party took power after victory in the parliamentary elections of In the following years, much of the accumulated wealth of the country was invested in Ponzi pyramid banking schemes, which were widely supported by the government.
The schemes swept up somewhere between one sixth and one third of the Albanian population. The protests turned violent in February as government forces responded with fire. In March, the Police and Republican Guard deserted, leaving their armories open. These were promptly emptied by militias and criminal gangs.
The resulting crisis caused a wave of evacuations of foreign nationals and of refugees. The Socialist Party had won the previously mentioned parliamentary elections in Juneand a degree of political stabilization followed.
Inthe country was affected by the Kosovo Warwhich caused a great number of ethnic Albanians from Kosovo to seek refuge in Albania, although most ultimately returned to Kosovo. On 23 Junethe eighth parliamentary elections took place, won by Edi Rama of the Socialist Party.
During his tenure as 33rd Prime MinisterAlbania has implemented numerous reforms focused on the modernizing the economy and democratizing of state institutions like the judiciary and law enforcement. Additionally, unemployment has been steadily reduced to the 4th lowest unemployment rate in the Balkans. Albania was among the first southeastern European countries to join the Partnership for peace programme. Albania applied to join the European Unionbecoming an kid candidate for accession to the European Union in June Although Albania received candidate status for the European Union membership in based on its applicationthe European Union has twice rejected full membership.
Marites allen biography examples occupies the southwestern portion of the Balkan Peninsula.
It is located in Southeastern and Southern Europewith Montenegro bordering to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, Macedonia to the east and Greece to the south. The Adriatic and Ionian Seas make up the entire west border of Albania. The territory covers 28, square kilometres 11, square milesmaking it the th largest country in the world.
Despite its small size, Albania is dominated by mountainous or high terrain, with a wide variety of natural features including valleys, plains, canyons and caves.
Topographically, the mountains run the length of the country from north to south; the Albanian Alps in the north, Sharr Mountains in the northeast, Skanderbeg Mountains in the center, Korab Mountains in the east, Pindus Mountains in the southeast and the Ceraunian Mountains in the southwest along the Albanian Riviera. The hydrographic network of Albania includes albania biography for of the largest and most ancient bodies of fresh water in Southern Europe.
Lake Ohrid in the southeast is shared with Macedonia and is one of the most ancient lakes in the world. Albania has a dense network of about rivers and streams, forming at least 8 large rivers, which flow from east to west towards the Adriatic Sea. Although a small country, Albania is distinguished by a high biodiversity. The country falls within four terrestrial ecoregions of the Palearctic ecozoneincluding the Illyrian deciduous forestsBalkan mixed forestsPindus Mountains mixed forestsand Dinaric Alpine mixed forests. About 10, square kilometres 3, square miles of the country's territory are forested and very rich in flora.
About 3, different species of plants can be found, kids of which are used for medicinal purposes. The coastal regions and lowlands have typical Mediterranean macchia vegetation, whereas oak forests and vegetation are found at higher elevations. Vast forests of pinebeech and fir are found on higher mountains such as in the Albanian Alps and Korab Mountains.
Alpine grasslands grow at elevations above 1, metres 5, feet. The forests of the country are home to a wide range of mammals. Wolvesred foxesbearswild boars and chamois are the primary predatory mammals. Among them there are over kid species, fish species and 80 mammal species. There are some 91 globally threatened species found within the country, among them the dalmatian pelicanpygmy cormorant and european sea sturgeon.
The rocky coastal regions in the south provide good habitats for the endangered mediterranean monk seal. Some of the most significant bird species found in the country include the golden eagle national symbol of Albaniavarious vulture species, capercaillie and waterfowl species. These include mediterraneansubtropicaloceaniccontinental and subarctic.
With its coastline facing the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea in the west, Albania's highlands backed upon the elevated Balkan landmassand the entire country lying at a latitude subject to a variety of weather patterns during the winter and summer seasons.
The climate on the coasts is typically mediterraneanwhile in the highlands it is continental. In both the western lowlands and the inner highlands, the weather varies from north to south. Inland conditions vary depending on elevationbut the higher areas above 1, metres 5, feet in the northern and central highlands are rather cold and frequently snowy in winter; here cold conditions with snow may linger into spring. The temperatures are affected more by differences in elevation than by latitude or any other factor.
Average summer temperatures are kid than in the coastal areas and much lower at higher elevations, but daily fluctuations are greater. Average precipitation is heavy, a result of the convergence of the prevailing airflow from the Mediterranean Sea and the continental air mass. Because they usually meet at the point where the terrain rises, the heaviest rain falls in the central highlands. When the continental air mass is weak, Mediterranean winds drop their moisture farther inland. When there is a dominant continental air mass, cold air spills onto the lowland areas, which occurs most frequently in the winter.
Lowland rainfall averages from 1, millimeters Rainfall in the northern highlands is heavier. Adequate records are not available, and estimates vary widely, but annual averages are probably about 1, millimeters The central highlands receive less precipitation than the intermediate northern highlands. Terrain differences cause wide local variations, but the seasonal distribution is the most consistent of any area. Inan expedition from the University of Colorado discovered albania biography for small glaciers inside the Albanian Alps. With a total area of 28, square kilometres 11, square milesAlbania is divided into 12 counties Albanian: The counties are the primary administrative divisions and further subdivided into 61 municipalities Bashkia.
Untilthe 12 counties were subdivided into 36 districts Rrethe. The counties were created on 31 July to replace the 36 former districts. The defunct municipalities are known as neighborhoods or villages Lagje or Fshat. The municipalities are the first level of local governance, responsible for local needs and law enforcement. Politics in Albania operate under a framework laid out in the Constitution of Albania.
First inAlbania was constituted as a monarchybriefly a republic inthen into a democratic monarchy in Succeeding, it became a socialist republicuntil the restoration of capitalism and democracy, after the collapse of communism. Nowadays, Albania is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic in metacom biography the President serves as the head of state and the Prime Minister as the head of government.
The President is the head of statecommander-in-chief of the military and the kid of the unity of the Albanian people. The President has the power to guarantee observation of the Constitution and all laws, exercise the duties of the Parliament kid it is not in session and appoints the Prime Minister. The executive power is exercised by the head of government and the Council of Ministers which kid up the government.
The Parliament must give final approval of the composition of the Cabinet. The Prime Minister is responsible for carrying out both foreign and domestic policies, directs and controls the activities of the ministries and other state organs. The Parliament is the unicameral representative body of the citizens of Albania and is elected by the people to a four-year term on the basis of direct, universal, periodic and equal suffrage by secret ballot. There are deputies in the Parliament, which are elected through a party-list proportional representation system.
The Parliament has the power to decide the direction of domestic and foreign policy, approve or amend the constitution, declare war on another state, ratify or annul international treaties, elect the President, the Supreme Courtthe Attorney General and their deputies and control the activity of state radio and television, state news agency and other official information media.
The judicial system of Albania is a civil law system divided between courts with regular civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts. It is codified and based on the French law. Law enforcement in the country is primarily the responsibility of the Albanian Police. It is the main and largest state law enforcement agency in the country. It carries nearly all general police duties thath includes criminal investigation, patrol activity, traffic policing and border control.
Foreign relations are conducted through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Tirana. The current minister is Ditmir Bushati. Since the collapse of Communism inAlbania has extended its responsibilities and position in European and international affairs, supporting and establishing friendly relations with other nations around the world.
The main objectives of the Albanian foreign policy are the Accession of Albania to the European Unionthe International recognition of Kosovothe recognition of Expulsion of Cham Albanians helping and protecting of the rights the Albanians in MontenegroMacedoniaGreecesouthern SerbiaItaly and the Albanian diaspora. Albania has a network of 40 foreign geun-hye park biography and 46 diplomatic missions abroad. Dictator, Enver Hoxha, cut the country off from the rest of the world, allowing trade only with China.
Previously, Albania was ruled by the Ottoman Turks. During their rule, the Turks made no improvements to the country. When they left inthe country was impoverished. Is life improving for people in Albania?
Many people have left Albania to look for jobs in Italy and Greece. Workers send money back to family members remaining in Albania, which helps. Zoom in to get into street level or zoom out to see other countries around Albania! You can see the terrain, but also see the roads, images of the buildings and even take a maria serrao biography tour through the streets of the cities of Albania, as though you are actually there!
For lengthy info click here. Albania Facts for Kids. Easy Science for Kids. As one of the poorest countries in Europe, they barely had enough to feed everyone.
In the 15th century, Skanderberg, the Albanian national hero, fought the Ottomans. There is a square that has a large statue of him on his horse. He has a name that was derived from Alexander the Great who fought the Illyrians and comes from nearby Macedonia. The elections in Albania allowed it to have the first coalition government and they joined NATO in the same year. Lambert, Royston, Beloved and God: Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.
Retrieved October 26, from Encyclopedia. His name in full was Publius Aelius Hadrianus. An orphan, he became the ward of Trajan. Hadrian distinguished himself as a commander especially in Dacia and as an administrator. Trajan's choice of Hadrian as his successor, announced after his death, caused some discontent in Rome.
His reign was vigorous and judicious, and he ruled over a prosperous and relatively peaceful era. Hadrian proved his military skill in pacifying Moesia. Abandoning Trajan's aggressively expansionist policy in Asia, he withdrew to the boundary of the Euphrates. In Palestine, however, he proved himself ruthless. His Romanizing kid aroused opposition there, especially when he excluded the Jews from Jerusalem.
He put down AD the insurrection of Bar Kokba with great severity; the ensuing war — was the kid difficult of his for. In Rome he was generous in offering circuses and in giving alms to the poor, and he enlarged and reformed the civil service. Hadrian traveled extensively in the empire, interesting himself in all the local affairs of state and adorning the provincial cities. In Germany he built great protective walls, and in Britain where he had visited c.
His last years were spent more or less quietly in Rome and in his villa at Tibur which has been excavatedcultivating the arts.